• The photomicrograph shows the mucosal surface.
• The inflammatory cells in the lamina propria are mixed mononuclear and neutrophilic.
• Neutrophils with segmented nuclei are noteable in several of the capillary lumens.
•The common bacterial agents are
Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klebsiella and Enterobacter.
infectious agents are Mycobacteria, Candida, Schistosoma, Chlamydia and
•Chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide and busulfan may
•Radiation therapy will cause chronic cystitis.
•The pathogenesis of chronic cystitis is diverse since the etiologies are many.
epidemiology is diverse, dependent upon the inciting agent.
•Bacterial cystitis tends to be more frequent in women than men probably due to the differences in urethral anatomy.
•Clinically, signs and symptoms are not particularly
•Patients may be asymptomatic.
•Patients may experience
dysuria, frequency, urgency and suprapubic pain.
•Urine may be grossly cloudy.
|General Gross Description|
•The bladder may show no significant gross
•Cystoscopically the mucosa may appear red, granular or
•Long standing chronic inflammation may cause the bladder to become thickened and fibrotic.
|General Micro Description|
•The urothelial mucosa of the bladder shows
chronic inflammatory cells in the lamina propria.
•Long standing cases
may show varying degrees of fibrosis.
•Most of the inflammatory cells are
lymphocytes which occasionally form aggregates and develop germinal
•The urothelium may show varying degrees of denudation and ulceration.
• Cotran RS, Kumar V, Robbins SL: Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 5th ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1994, pp. 995-996.
• Harrison^s Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th Ed: Isselbach et. al. (eds). New York, McGraw-Hill, 1994, pp. 538-543.