Cross section of placenta; fetal surface at top.
Long arrow = retroplacental hemorrhage.
Short arrows = area of infarcted villi due to compression.
Trauma including accidents and amniocentesis
Decidual vascular pathology associated with preeclampsia or anticardiolipin antibodies
Abnormal uterine shape
Separation of the placenta by retroplacental hemorrhage from the uterus prior to delivery of the fetus.
Hemorrhage may extend into the intervillous space
Compression with hemorrhage in the villus stroma and/or infarct may occur
Secondary to vascular rupture (fibrinoid necrosis), sudden vascular hypertension with bleeding (cocaine) or vascular thrombosis
<1% of pregnancies based on clinician^s estimate
2-4% of placentas examined microscopically show some evidence of abruption
Present with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding
Extent of vaginal bleeding may depend on location of rupture (marginal or central)
Hemorrhage may be substantial and result in fetal mortality.
|General Gross Description|
Retroplacental blood clot which may be very adherent to maternal surface
May be compression and infarct of adjacent villi.
|General Micro Description|
Clot may vary from acute to old although it will not organize
Villi may show hemorrhage into the stroma
Villous infarcts may be seen.
Benirschke K, Kaufmann P. Pathology of the human placenta, 3rd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1995, pp. 496-508.